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Nickel Oxide preparation and health risks

wallpapers News 2021-11-23
Nickel Oxide preparation
Nickel oxide can be prepared by various methods. When heated to above 400°C, nickel powder reacts with oxygen to form Nickel oxide. In some commercial processes, green nickel oxide is made by heating a mixture of nickel powder and water at 1000°C. The reaction rate can be increased by adding Nickel oxide.
The simplest and most successful preparation method is to pyrolyze nickel (II) compounds (such as hydroxides, nitrates, and carbonates) to produce a light green powder. By heating the metal in oxygen, the synthesis of the elements can produce gray to black powder, which indicates that the stoichiometry is wrong. It combines with sodium and potassium oxides at high temperatures (> 700°C) to form corresponding nickelates.
In addition, nickel oxide nanoparticles can be produced by thermally decomposing newly prepared nickel hydroxide through a sol-gel route at 300°C (572°F). X-ray diffractometer and vibrating sample magnetometer can be used to characterize the nickel oxide nanoparticles produced by this method.
Nickel oxide health risks
Long-term inhalation of Nickel oxide can damage the lungs, causing damage and, in some cases, cancer. Nickel oxide has a half-life of more than 90 days in the blood. The retention time of Nickel oxide in the lung is longer. When given to mice, it persisted in the lungs for more than three months. Nickel oxide has been classified as a human carcinogen based on the increased risk of respiratory cancers observed in epidemiological studies of sulfide smelter workers.
In a 2-year National Toxicology Program green Nickel oxide inhalation study, some evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in F344/N rats, but vague evidence was observed in female B6C3F1 mice. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice. Chronic inflammation without fibrosis was observed during the 2-year study.

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